DRY SKIN Write For Us – Dry skin, called xerosis in medical terms, is a condition in which the skin appears cracked, rough, rough, aged, tight, scaly, and less elastic.
The prevalence of xerosis increases physiologically with age, but it can also manifest different diseases, whether cutaneous or systemic, that is, of the entire human organism.
What is the main symptom of xerosis?
Based on the fact that a symptom is a personal sign that helps to reveal a disease, we can say that the main symptom of xerosis is pruritus.
In any case, it must be taken into account that although pruritus in the absence of an obvious skin rash is a typical symptom of xerosis, it does not mean that it is only related to xerosis since pruritus is a non-specific symptom that can be present in many entities.
What happens at the microscopic level in xerosis?
As explained in other sections, the most superficial part of the skin, the epidermis, is made up of four layers (five on the palms and soles) that are constantly evolving and maturing and which, in turn, are intimately connected and communicated with each other and with the underlying skin structures through specific molecules and substances, which are of increasing importance for the understanding of different skin pathologies.
In xerosis or dry skin, there is an alteration of both the cellular elements of the skin and the concentration and formation of said substances, which together leads to the characteristic appearance of dry skin.
The pathophysiology of xerosis is of special relevance:
Alteration of the maturation process from keratinocytes in the stratum spinosum to corneocytes in the stratum corneum (the most superficial), resulting in lower-quality corneocytes.
The decrease in the concentration of filaggrin with age, a protein whose degradation produces amino acids and salts that hydrate the skin.
The qualitative and quantitative alteration of the lipids (ceramides, cholesterol and essential fatty acids) that are formed from the content of the lamellar bodies of the cells of the stratum granulosum. These lipids are arranged between the stratum corneum cells and contribute to maintaining the skin’s hydration, structure and resistance.
The decrease in the concentration of growth factors released by cells underlying the epidermis (especially by fibroblasts) stimulates the keratinocyte differentiation process.
The decrease in the concentration of enzymes of the stratum corneum that cooperate in transforming filaggrin, lipids and other molecules of the same stratum helps keep the skin hydrated and cohesive.
What factors condition xerosis?
Three factors mainly condition the fact of having dry skin:
They are those environmental, chemical and physical factors that can produce xerosis and is especially important in its prevention and stabilization.
What diseases manifest with xerosis?
Diseases can cause xerosis either by themselves or due to the drugs prescribed for their treatment. Some examples of medications that cause xerosis are retinoids, antineoplastics, and antiretrovirals…
Xerosis occurs paradoxically in summer due to the use of air conditioners that provide cold and dry air.
Senile skin. It occurs in over 75% of people over 75 and is the most frequent cause of pruritus without skin lesions. It typically begins in the pretibial area and worsens after bathing in hot water, changes in temperature, decreased humidity, and detergents. Entities such as contact dermatitis, chronic lichen simplex, and urticaria cause a lot of itching with consequent scratching and aggravation of the skin lesion, producing more dryness and more itching.
How can I prevent my skin from being dry?
In daily skin care, using moisturizers and soaps with an acidic pH is essential. A varied diet wealthy in fruits and vegetables with a high content of vitamins A, B, C, and D provides the necessary minerals and vitamins for healthy skin. Physical exercise also contributes to more hydrated skin since it favours vasodilation with a consequent improvement in skin blood supply. It is advisable to wear soft, natural and loose clothing to prevent skin irritation. Likewise, factors that age the skin should be avoided, such as sun exposure, tobacco and alcohol.
What treatments are applied for xerosis?
Knowing the mechanisms involved in xerosis (detailed above), it can be deduced that the treatment of dry skin must act not only on the outermost layer of the skin but also deeper, from where the growth and maintenance of full and healthy skin are. That is why the “inside out” treatment method is now being postulated by applying products that penetrate the skin and act from within.
In the same way; it is important to interrupt the itch-scratch cycle in those people with itching to avoid continuous skin damage caused by scratching.
For the correct skin water balance, both moisturizers and moisturizers are available. Humectants are substances that retain or help retain moisture, while hydration supplies or restores water to the skin, thus playing a more active role. The latter should always be administered under the advice of a specialist. It is essential to apply these emollients right after getting out of the shower without delay, which is when the skin is most hydrated
the skin is the largest organ. It plays a vital role in regulating body temperature and acts as a barrier to protect the body against infection. Its ability to act as an effective shield depends on maintaining an optimal hydration level. However, certain parts are prone to dehydration. When skin is dry, its ability to retain moisture is impaired, and it is less effective in doing its job. It can be noticeable and look stiff, red, rough, scaly, itchy, and, in extreme cases, it can even crack. Routine skin care and specific products for severe dehydration will help restore health.
Generally, dry skin is very harmless and easily remedied. A good cream will suffice to solve the problem. But suppose your epidermis continues to remain rough and dehydrated. In that case, you feel itchy, and no matter how much lotion you apply without feel any relief or other strange symptoms accompanying your skin problems not explained; the smart thing to do is consult your doctor to try to solve the problem. We will tell you what could be happening.
Dry skin doesn’t have to be a symptom of diabetes, hypothyroidism, kidney disease, or skin cancer, but it could be a sign.
There are various levels of dryness: from a moderate form that causes little discomfort to rough, scaly and itchy. It can cause the skin to contract and become brittle, eventually leading to skin cracks. This is is particularly common in areas where flexion is is perform, such as the soles of the feet.
“Not at all unusual for this disease to affect the skin,” says Helene Rosenzweig, MD, dermatology at the University of Calif., Los Angeles, School of Medicine. When your sugar levels are chronically high, your body loses fluid more quickly, leading to dehydrated skin. Diabetes can also interfere with your ability to sweat, reducing the amount of moisture on your skin. If it gets really bad, dry, cracked skin can become vulnerable to different glucose-eating bacteria, leaving you prone to potentially dangerous infections.
Dry skin does not have to be a sign of diabetes. But yes, if it is linked to you being more thirsty, wanting to go to the bathroom continuously and being more hungry than normal. Fatigue and blurred vision are the most common symptoms. Your doctor can probably easily diagnose it with a simple blood test.
This gland produces hormones to keep the body’s cells at a good pace. When these levels are too low (hypothyroidism ), everything else worsens so that you may feel colder, have memory loss, constipation, depression or tire more easily. And, because thyroid hormones have receptors in the skin and play a role in new cells replacing old ones, it’s one reason there may be dryness, flaking, or a rough touch, according to an article published in the journal ‘Dermato Endocrinology’.
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